Ateneo PolSci Bloggers

Archive for the ‘History’ Category

History Lessons

In Culture, History, Politics on February 26, 2011 at 3:22 am

By: Ross Tugade

This week’s EDSA euphoria has given me a lot of room for contemplation, not only because I’m currently in the process of finishing my Master’s thesis about People Power 3 and the EDSA narrative in general, but also in light of what’s happening right now in certain parts of the world where people are beginning to stand communaly against unjust socio-political structures.

Ever since the African-Arab revolts have erupted, I constantly hear smug remarks from some fellow Filipinos that “we did it better in ‘86” because the almost-miraculous rate by which people flooded the lanes of EDSA happened before the age of the internet and social networking sites. The EDSA People Power Revolution is indeed a source of pride for my people, but I would like to think that what Tunisia and Egypt have accomplished should remind us as well of the still-monumental task of deepening democracy and equality in our very own land. With what is transpiring now in another part of the world, I am humbled as a student of politics, a Filipino, and more so as a human being.

Read the rest of this entry »

NASA PAG-ALALA ANG PAGLAYA: Panawagan sa Pag-alala ng Masaker sa Maguindanao

In History, Philippine Issues, Politics, Youth on November 23, 2010 at 4:58 pm

(mula sa mga kaibigan sa Matanglawin, ang opisyal na pahayagang pangmag-aaral ng Pamantasang Ateneo de Manila)

“…We have yet to achieve the cultural integration of the meaning of the Holocaust, which is essential if the slogan “Never Again!” is to become a living reality. We must ask ourselves why we have failed. Is it because we are unwilling to face the meaning of the event? Are we so repelled by its sheer horror that we are unintentionally repressing the investigation of what it means in terms of the future of our civilization? Is it because we start with the a priori assumption that events of this sort are unintelligible? Have we so “mystified” the event itself that it seems somehow disconnected from our own age, something that happened on another planet entirely? It seems clear to me that the crisis we face with regard to knowing and understanding the Holocaust is partly, if not largely, one of our own making.”

– Alan Rosenberg, “The Crisis in Knowing and Understanding the Holocaust,” mula sa ECHOES FROM THE HOLOCAUST

Nobyembre 23, 2010. Mag-iisang taon na mula nang naganap ang isa sa mga pinakanakakarimarim na krimen sa ating kontemporanyong kasaysayan. Sa bayan ng Ampatuan, Maguindanao ay pinaslang nang walang-awa ang 57 katao ng mga elementong kakabit ng nanunugkulang angkan ng mga Ampatuan sa probinsyang ito. Pangunahin sa mga pinaslang, katulad ng nasabi na sa lahat ng pag-alala, ang maybahay ng pinuno ng kaalit nilang angkan ng  mga Mangudadatu, mga kapatid niya, mga mamamahayag, mannanggol, kasambahay at mga inosenteng motorista. Nagimbal ang buong sambayanan, lumuha, nagngalit atlalong nawalan ng tiwala sa mga sistemang pampamahalaang pinangunguluhan ng teknokratiko-awtoritaryang pangulong Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo (na sa kasalukuya’yhindi pa rin napapanagot sa kanyang mga kasalanan sa bayan). Magpasahanggang ngayon, nakabinbin pa rin ang kaso ng paglilitis sa mga pangunahing pinaghihinalaang maysala sa karumal-dumal na krimen na si Andal Ampatuan Jr., dating punongbayan ng Datu Unsay (na nakapiit pa rin at nakatatanggap ng di-kawasang mabuting pagtrato kung ihahambing sa karaniwang preso). Read the rest of this entry »


In History, Philippine Issues, Political Economy, Political Theory, Politics, Youth on November 18, 2010 at 1:41 am

An Analysis of Philippine Socio-Political Realities and Opportunities Towards Mobilization for Radicalization of Democracy

Hansley A. Juliano

(Note: Originally a final requirement for the course “PoS 160: Current Issues and Problems in Philippine Government and Politics” under Ms. Joy G. Aceron, this is an expanded form of the writeup with initial ideas for tactics on mobilization and the social considerations attached therein. The themes will be revisited once further research has been conducted.)

Among the literature that has attempted to analyze and understand the development of the Philippine nation, its society and its component people, it is supposedly only Jose Maria Sison who was able to present a comprehensive framework for political change in the country via his seminal Philippine Society and Revolution (published under the pseudonym of” Amado Guerrero” in 1970). Characterizing the Philippine socio-political landscape as “a semi-colonial and semi-feudal society” via its collective colonial heritage of Spanish frontier-building among the vast East Indies and the United States’ avowed deceptive program of “Benevolent Assimilation,” the publication therefore pronounces that political change can only come through a “a national-democratic revolution, a revolution seeking the liberation of the Filipino people from foreign and feudal oppression and exploitation.” (Guerrero 1970, 77). Read the rest of this entry »

“”Beyond the Spectacle?”: Debunking Popular Notions About Elections

In Elections, History, Philippine Issues, Politics on March 12, 2010 at 9:57 am

by Hansley A. Juliano

With the campaign period for the 2010 Philippine elections kicking into high gear, one might be prone to the pessimistic notions which Jessica Zafra has outlined so succinctly in her Pinoy Elections: A Guide for the Dismayado. To paraphrase: “we are governed by actors and entertained by politicians.” In a sense, I doubt much of our desensitised population would be dissuaded of their notion that politics and artists are of different breeds: one only needs to visit any forum that would host opinions on the upcoming polls to see gems of cynicism such as the following:
Read the rest of this entry »

EDSA at 2010: Towards a Politics of Hope

In History, Politics on February 25, 2010 at 12:03 pm

by Rosselle Tugade

Throughout the unfolding of history the twin slogans of hope and change have mostly been prostituted and peddled with much ruthlessness and aggression. Underneath the skillful adornment of such buzzwords is a traitorous ambition to write an eschatological account for political life that hails the well-managed bureaucratic nation as the only imaginable habitus for politics with the free market as the only optimal structure of economic organization. Hope and Change have been the golden calves of our time with most of us uncritically worshipping the various gods they represent: a promise of inevitable uniform global progress; a prospect for a tranquil end to all political and historic conflict; and a satisfying ‘social’ existence through ‘legitimate’, ‘process-oriented’, and ‘formal’ mechanisms. The great violence that undergirds all of these is the unapologetic exploitation of the human soul’s ability to genuinely hope, communicate, and act within the context of a vibrant community.

At present, the Philippines is once again under the charming aura of an election season. Arguably, the system of free, fair, and regular elections has been significant for the entry of unorthodox voices in the arena of institutional politics. However, what is increasingly alarming is the content of the discursive map being drawn by the contemporary operators of such a mechanism: that the pinnacle of political life today is the translation of our aspirations into the singular aim of securing and/or enhancing the present order. The political contest is adjudicated in terms of who can deliver the most efficient solutions to day-to-day problems. The destination aimed at, it seems, is a society whose affairs are neatly managed by a benign Leviathan while the corresponding task demanded from the people is to lay down their arms, strip off their labels, aspire for a goal of progress, and work industriously for ‘the good of all’, whatever that may be.

Read the rest of this entry »

Pagsalitain Natin si Rizal

In Culture, History, Philippine Issues, Youth on December 31, 2009 at 4:21 am

Isang nahuling paggunita hindi sa pagkatao ni Jose Rizal kundi sa kung ano ang nais sabihin at iparating ni Jose Rizal

ni Hansley A. Juliano

Buong buhay ko, wala kayong ginawa kundi husgahan ako, basahin ako. Kinuha niyo na ang lahat sa akin. Kung anu-anong hiningi ninyo, pero hindi niyo pa rin makita kung sino ako. Marami na akong ibinigay, bakit pati ang buhay ko? Patahimikin niyo na ako, para makita ko ang sarili ko!

– Jose Rizal, sa pagganap ni Cesar Montano

Sa pagkakataong ito, hindi ang aking mga opinyon o ang aking paniniwala, kundi kung ano ang paniniwala ng isang mamamayang itinuring nating propeta na magpasahanggan ngayon ay hindi binibigyang-halaga, ang bibigyan ko ng puwang.
Read the rest of this entry »


In Elections, History, Philippine Issues, Politics on December 5, 2009 at 2:15 am
(o kung papaano natin dapat tanawin ang balita ng deklarasyon ng pamahalaang Arroyo ng Batas Militar sa Maguindanao)
ni Hansley A. Juliano

Hindi nilikha ang sulating ito upang magbigay ng kasagutan, kundi upang ilatag ang mga tanong na dapat nating bantayan ang sagot.

Una, sinasabi sa ngayon ng GMA7 News na hindi raw totoo ang balitang ito batay sa pahayag ni Press Secretary Cerge Remonde, nguni’t marahil dapat pa rin nating isulat para alam natin kung paano ba talaga marapat tanawin ang paggamit sa Batas Militar sa ating panahon. Iminumungkahi kong kung tinatamad kayo magbasa, laktawan ang mga block quote.

Read the rest of this entry »


In History, Philippine Issues, Politics on November 28, 2009 at 10:51 pm

An Attack on Freedom

The brutal massacre of at least sixty-four individuals in Ampatuan, Maguindanao brings to the fore the vastly ignored problem of endemic political violence in Philippine elections. It has brought to light, once more, the grave danger of a culture of warlordism in the context of weak state presence – a culture that relies on impunity and uses fear as its main currency. The loss of sixty-four lives in Maguindanao opens our eyes to the reality of the state of the Philippine nation today – a reality that begs us to peer closer into the delicate socio-political structures that make up our country.

The ASSEMBLY calls for solidarity in view of the great tragedy that beset us on the twenty third of November THE ASSEMBLY calls for solidarity in grief for the departed but moreover in their call for justice. Not only for the sixty-four who just recently lost their lives, but for all those whose lives were wasted in the name of power and privilege.

It is but only fitting that a citizenry demand nothing less from its government than the maintenance of peace and the pursuit of communal good. It is nothing less than just that the Filipino nation demands that, in this pursuit of peace and freedom, those who trespassed the lines that delineate our basic human morals should be held accountable – it is only proper that those who are responsible for the Ampatuan Massacre be brought to face the consequences of their base act of violating human life and dignity at an unimaginable scale. It is only proper that the Filipino community begins this struggle for justice from hereon – a struggle to recognize the human reality of our nation’s politics; whether it be the reality of its misinterpretation, abuse, or the lack thereof.

Read the rest of this entry »

Siklo ng Karahasan

In Elections, History, Philippine Issues, Politics on November 28, 2009 at 6:19 pm

Pagmumuni-muni sa malamig-lamig na pagngangalit ng taumbayang Pilipino sa pamamaslang sa 57 tao sa Maguindanao sa ilalim ng mga Ampatuan
ni Hansley A. Juliano

Para sa isang tunay na pangkating subaltern, na ang pagkakakilanlan ay ang kanilang ka-Ibahan, walang di-makakatawang suhetong subaltern na makikilala’t makakapagsalita para sa kanyang sarili; ang solusyon ng intelektwal ay di ang magpigil sa pagkatawan. May suliranin pagka’t ang layon ng suheto ay di matagpuan upang maganyak ang kakatawang intelektwal.

– Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak, Can the Subaltern Speak?

Hindi na ako magtataka kung marami sa nakatanggap ng mga balita ukol sa mga pamamaslang sa 57 na mga tao, kabilang ang mga 13 mamamahayag sa Maguindanao ay batiin ng tila pagkasanay o kawalang-pakialam ang balitang ito. Kung magpapahayag ng pagkagitla, pagkabagabag, o pagkagalit sa usaping ito ay puwedeng-puwede nating ikahon sa tatlong uri ng tugon:


Oh god, so sad. There’s just too many evils in the world. I cry… (LOL)

Fuck these Muslim pigs! They deserve to die! Go President Arroyo!

Itong mga kaisipang ito ang siyang nagpapanatili, nagpapatibay, at siyang nagpapalaganap sa mga ganitong pamamaslang. Itong hegemonya ng kamangmangan, kawalang-kaalaman at kawalang-pakialam, kung tutuusin, ang siyang pinakamabuti’t matatag na tanggulan ng mga ganitong mapangwasak at mapanupil na sistematikong karahasan hindi lamang sa Maguindanao, kundi pati na sa buong kapuluan kung tutuusin. Napakaraming mga pagkakataon nang tayo ay nakarinig ng mga usapin ukol sa mga patayan, sa mga kawalang-katarungan, sa pagtatanggol ng kulungang estado sa kanyang mga galamay na naghahari-harian sa ating lupain, at sa mga pagnanasa nating ipatimbuwal ang mga sistema’t kulturang ito na pumapatay sa ating mga walang-malay at makatarungang mga kapatid.

Read the rest of this entry »

Ekonomiko Pa Rin Ang Tanong

In Culture, History, Philippine Issues, Youth on October 3, 2009 at 5:09 pm

(o kung bakit sa kabila ng aking pakikibahagi magiging walang-kwentang “footnote to history” lamang na naman ang mga mobilisasyon para sa nasalanta ng Bagyong Ondoy)

ni Hansley A. Juliano

Marahil may mga bagay na kailangan akong alalahanin sa pag-alis ni Ondoy at maaaring pagsaglit ni Pepeng. Hindi naman siguro masamang sabihin na naging kabahagi ako ng sanrekwang mag-aaral ng Pamantasan na lumubog sa baha, gumawa ng iilang patawang patama sa ibang lugar na binabaha, at nakaranas ng existential crisis sa kung bakit inabot din ang Katipunan ng ganitong kalaking sakuna. Gaya ng naikwento ko na, naramdaman ko ang pagdating ng bagyo noon pa lamang naglalakad ako patungong Alingal Hall, kung saan pinagtulungan ako ng hanging habagat at ng mga luha ni Tungkung Langit na bigyan ng baradong ilong pagkatapos. Alam na natin ang nangyari. Napanood na sa YouTube. Naipost na ang lahat ng retrato at na-tag na tayo ng mga kaibigan sa ganoon kalaking problema. Seryoso: wala na tayong masasabi pa. Walang pinagkaiba sa isang malupit, nakapanunugat at matalim na pagtatanghal ng isang trahedya. Dalawa lamang ang posibleng ating magawa kapag hinarap ka ng ganitong sakuna, at least sa pananaw ng iba: ang magitla’t umiyak nang mapait sa libu-libong namatay, o ang umiyak habang nagbabalot ng mga tulong, kundi ang makasama mismo sa pag-aabot ng tulong sa mga buhay pa nguni’t lubhang nasalanta. Dito lang sa pagkakataon ko ito siguro masasang-ayunan, bahagya lamang, si Ninoy Aquino nang noong Abril 6, 1975, sinabi niya sa kapwa niyang senador na si Francisco “Soc” Rodrigo:
If we want our people to follow, I propose, we must cease arguing and start acting, doing what a freeman must do to assert his rights and defend his freedoms. Actions, not words. Selfless examples, not ideas. The time for talking is past!

Pero, siyempre, hindi yun ganoon kadali.

Read the rest of this entry »